Private mobile networks designed and deployed specifically for enterprise users provide opportunities to optimize and redefine business processes in ways that are either impractical or not possible within the limitations of wired and Wi-Fi networks. For industrial users, the ability to design mobile networks to meet the coverage, performance, and security requirements of production-critical applications is fundamental to the new wave of cyberphysical systems known as Industry 4.0. The strategic importance of private networks is now reflected in 5G R&D. Whereas in previous generations, private networking was an add-on capability to public cellular systems, these requirements are now addressed directly in the 5G specifications. This will ensure the technology meets the needs of future private network customers, will increase their confidence in the roadmap, and will serve to accelerate the deployment of 5G networks by and for enterprises. This Heavy Reading white paper argues that 5G technology is particularly suited to industrial users with requirements for predictable, reliable performance. It discusses how private 5G networks meet the needs of demanding industrial applications and can contribute to process automation across a range of sectors – from smart factories and warehouses, to ports, to oil & gas production, to chemical plants, to energy generation and distribution, and more. The paper investigates key issues in private 5G, including how end-user organizations can deploy and operate the technology, the integration of private local-area and wide-area public networks, and the importance of spectrum for private deployments. The paper discusses how private 5G can be deployed across diverse licensed, shared licensed, and unlicensed spectrum bands. Specifically, it addresses the use of time synchronization in shared spectrum as a way to ensure predictable performance.